The Beginning of Modernization: Juarez and his liberals would try for 10 years to consolidate their rule by fully implementing the constitution of Juarez and the liberals would also try to modernize Mexico or at the very least set Mexico on a path of social, and economic modernization.
The goal of the liberals was to create a new era of peace and material progress. In July of Juarez was once again the president of Mexico and he immediately called for elections and announced that he was interested in a third term.
Many Mexicans thought that a 3rd term would be excessive. But the first two terms of Juarez were spent on the run, for the most part and he accomplished little of his liberal agenda.
Before the elections Juarez carried several important political reforms and more importantly reduced the size of the Mexican military from 60, to 20, In October of Juarez won the election. Juarez adopted a much more conciliatory policy towards the conservatives who had aided the French and set free many political prisoners who had collaborated with the French.
This was classic David Ricardo liberal theory for economic development.
In retrospect it may have been shortsighted to base the economic development of a country on the export of raw materials. But there were other factors that discouraged potential investors.
Mexico had an image of political instability, rebellions, caudillos, corruption and lawlessness and all these stereotypes discouraged foreign investors from placing their funds in Mexico.
With adequate funding the rurales began to make a difference in patrolling roads,assisting the army, policing local elections and in general making Mexico a safer and more stable place. But the most important economic development in the early part of the Restoration was the construction of the Mexico city-Veracruz railroad.
Those countries with denser rail grids would be the countries that would successfully modernize and industrialize in the 20th century. During the period of the empire the railroad concession rights were held by the Imperial Mexican Railway Company which was a British corporation.
And British engineers during the age of Maximilian made great progress in laying portions of the track, but by the company was almost bankrupt. Juarez supported the company and paid it an annual government subsidy ofpesos for 25 years.
The Mexican owners were by and large conservatives who had collaborated under Max. In an attempt to calm criticism the company was renamed Ferrocarril Mexicano and the line was officially opened in The successful completion of the Mexico city - Veracruz railroad inspired other railroad building projects.
Education would also be reformed in the Fall of Juarez appointed a commission to study and reform the entire educational structure of Mexico.
The committee was headed by Gabino Barreda who was a positivist. The committee recommended a curriculum that stressed math, physics, chemistry. But the liberal arts were largely ignored. But even more important primary education in Mexico was to be free and mandatory for the first time.
All towns over were to have a school for boys and one for girls. Juarez also sought to smooth out foreign relations. The election of was one of the most hotly contested elections of the 19th century.
Two former supporters of Juarez ran against him. The election thus split the liberal party into three factions-the Juaristas, the Porfiristas, and the Lerdistas.
Juarez had a wide base of support and had the bureaucracy behind him. Lerdo had the support of the middle class and upper classes as well as the professional classes.Latterly, some historians have written of the "myth" of the revolution, namely the memory of the revolution was exploited by the party to legitimatize its rule with one historian Macario Schettino writing: "the twentieth century is for Mexico, the century of the Mexican revolution.
The Mexican Revolution was the first major social revolution of the 20th century. Its causes included, among others, the authoritarian rule of dictator Porfirio Díaz, the seizure of millions of acres of indigenous village lands by wealthy hacendados and foreign investors, and the growing divide between the rich and the poor.
As a result of these varied causes and Mexico’s strong social and. The Mexican Revolution () severely disrupted the Mexican economy, erasing many of the gains achieved during the Porfiriato. The labor force declined sharply, with the economically active share of the population falling from 35 percent in to 31 percent in Dec 16, · Watch video · From the stone cities of the Maya to the might of the Aztecs, from its conquest by Spain to its rise as a modern nation, Mexico boasts a rich history and cultural heritage spanning more than.
A year later Friedrich Katz broke new ground, however, by placing the Mexican Revolution in the context of the machinations of the great imperial powers in The Secret War in Mexico: Europe, the United States, and the Mexican Revolution ().
The Mexican Revolution broke out in when the decades-old rule of President Porfirio Díaz was challenged by Francisco I. Madero, a reformist writer and politician. When Díaz refused to allow clean elections, Madero's calls for revolution were answered by Emiliano Zapata in the south, and Pascual Orozco and Pancho Villa in the north.