It offers a holistic perspective that necessarily encompasses the aesthetic, which is central to both its critique of capitalism and its vision of communism.
Definition[ edit ] Art history as we know it in the 21st century began in the 19th century but has precedents that date to the ancient world. Like the analysis of historical trends in politics, literature, and the sciences, the discipline benefits from the clarity and portability of the written word, but art historians also rely on formal analysissemioticspsychoanalysis and iconography.
Advances in photographic reproduction and printing techniques after World War II increased the ability of reproductions of artworks.
Such technologies have helped to advance the discipline in profound ways, as they have enabled easy comparisons of objects.
The study of visual art thus described, can be a practice that involves understanding contextformand social significance. Methodologies[ edit ] Art historians employ a number of methods in their research into the ontology and history of objects.
Art historians often examine work in the context of its time. At best, this is done in a manner which respects its creator's motivations and imperatives; with consideration of the desires and prejudices of its patrons and sponsors; with a comparative analysis of themes and approaches of the creator's colleagues and teachers; and with consideration of iconography and symbolism.
In short, this approach examines the work of art in the context of the world within which it was created. Art historians also often examine work through an analysis of form; that is, the creator's use of lineshapecolortextureand composition. This approach examines how the artist uses a two-dimensional picture plane or the three dimensions of sculptural or architectural space to create his or her art.
The way these individual elements are employed results in representational or non-representational art. Is the artist imitating an object or image found in nature? If so, it is representational. The closer the art hews to perfect imitation, the more the art is realistic.
Is the artist not imitating, but instead relying on symbolism, or in an important way striving to capture nature's essence, rather than copy it directly? If so the art is non-representational—also called abstract. Realism and abstraction exist on a continuum.
Impressionism is an example of a representational style that was not directly imitative, but strove to create an "impression" of nature.
If the work is not representational and is an expression of the artist's feelings, longings and aspirations, or is a search for ideals of beauty and form, the work is non-representational or a work of expressionism. An iconographical analysis is one which focuses on particular design elements of an object.
Through a close reading of such elements, it is possible to trace their lineage, and with it draw conclusions regarding the origins and trajectory of these motifs. In turn, it is possible to make any number of observations regarding the social, cultural, economic, and aesthetic values of those responsible for producing the object.
Many art historians use critical theory to frame their inquiries into objects. Theory is most often used when dealing with more recent objects, those from the late 19th century onward.
Critical theory in art history is often borrowed from literary scholarsand it involves the application of a non-artistic analytical framework to the study of art objects.
FeministMarxistcritical racequeerand postcolonial theories are all well established in the discipline. As in literary studies, there is an interest among scholars in nature and the environment, but the direction that this will take in the discipline has yet to be determined.
More recently, media and digital technology introduced possibilities of visual, spatial and experiential analyses. The relevant forms vary from movies, to interactive forms, including virtual environments, augmented environments, situated media, networked media, etc.
The methods enabled by such techniques are in active development and promise to include qualitative approaches that can emphasize narrative, dramatic, emotional and ludic characteristics of history and art.Let us think for a moment of the art before the First World War.
the dominant tendency was impressionism, born in France in the last decades of the 19th century. Personally I like impressionism.
It conveys the idea of a tranquil, peaceful world, a world of flowers and sunshine and picnic on the lawn. Home › Literary Criticism › Marxism and Literary Theory. Marxism and Literary Theory By Nasrullah Mambrol on April 12, • (7). Marxism is a materialist philosophy which tried to interpret the world based on the concrete, natural .
Marxism, then, is a direct and critical successor to humanity’s best thinking in the 19th century. The height of philosophy at this time was found in Germany, with the work of Kant and Hegel. The most developed political economy was .
An analysis of chemical reactions October 6, by Leave a Comment Analysis or breakdown an examination of cursive writing is the separation of a single chemical compound into its two or more elemental parts or to simpler compounds Chemical Our Department offers B S Chemistry and B S Biochemistry majors.
Introduction. Following a worldwide feminist movement in the later 20th century, women became a renewed topic for art and art history, giving rise to gender analysis of both artistic production and art historical discourse.
It offers a holistic perspective that necessarily encompasses the aesthetic, which is central to both its critique of capitalism and its vision of communism. To date the only book-length presentation of the history of Marxist art history is Hemingway , Solomon, Maynard, ed.
Marxism and Art: Essays Classic and Contemporary. New York.