Review Article Therapeutic Communities for Addictions: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Therapeutic communities TCs for addictions are drug-free environments in which people with addictive problems live together in an organized and structured way to promote change toward recovery and reinsertion in society. Despite a long research tradition in TCs, the evidence base for the effectiveness of TCs is limited according to available reviews.
Restricting sleep to less than 6 hours per night for four or more consecutive nights has been shown to impair cognitive performance and mood, disturb glucose metabolism, appetite regulation and immune function.
This type of evidence has led to the recommendation that adults should obtain 8 hours of sleep per night. While there are considerable data available related to the amount of sleep obtained by adults in the general population, there are few published data related to the amount of sleep obtained by elite athletes.
Sleep deprivation There are a limited number of studies which have examined the effects of sleep deprivation on athletic performance.
From the available data it appears that several phenomena exist. Firstly, the sleep deprivation must be greater than 30 hours one complete night of no sleep and remaining awake into the afternoon to have an impact on anaerobic performance Skein et al.
Secondly, aerobic performance may be decreased after only 24 hours Oliver et al, and thirdly, sustained or repeated bouts of exercise are affected to a greater degree than one-off maximal efforts. The mechanism behind the reduced performance following prolonged sustained sleep deprivation is not clear, however it has been suggested that an increased perception of effort is one potential cause.
While the above studies provide some insight into the relationship between sleep deprivation and performance, most athletes are more likely to experience acute bouts of partial sleep deprivation where sleep is reduced for several hours on consecutive nights.
Partial sleep deprivation Only a small number of studies have examined the effect of partial sleep deprivation on athletic performance. From the available research it appears that sub-maximal prolonged tasks may be more affected than maximal efforts particularly after the first two nights of partial sleep deprivation Reilly et al, Effects of sleep extension and napping Another means of examining the effect of sleep on performance is to extend the amount of sleep an athlete receives and determine the effects on subsequent performance.
Information from the small number of studies suggests that increasing the amount of sleep an athlete receives may significantly enhance performance. Athletes suffering from some degree of sleep loss may benefit from a brief nap, particularly if a training session is to be completed in the afternoon or evening.
Naps can markedly reduce sleepiness and can be beneficial when learning skills, strategy or tactics in sleep deprived individuals. Napping may be beneficial for athletes who have to routinely wake early for training or competition and for athletes who are experiencing sleep deprivation.
Habitual sleep duration According to a Gallup Poll in the USA, the average self-reported sleep duration of healthy individuals is 6. However, the sleep habits of elite athletes have only recently been investigated. Leeder et al compared the sleep habits of 47 elite athletes from Olympic sports using actigraphy over a 4-day period to that of age and gender-matched non-sporting controls.
The athlete group had a total time in bed of 8: Despite the longer time in bed, the athlete group had a longer sleep latency time to fall asleep The results demonstrated that while athletes had a comparable quantity of sleep to controls, significant differences were observed in the quality of sleep between the two groups Leeder et al, While the above data was obtained during a period of normal training without competition, athletes may experience disturbed sleep prior to important competition or games.
Therefore it appears that sleep disturbances in athletes can occur at two time points: This sleep disruption during normal training may be due to a poor routine as a consequence of early training sessions, poor sleep habits i.
While not documented in the literature, anecdotal evidence also suggests that athletes such as footballers who compete at night also have significant difficulties falling asleep post competition. The human body responds to water immersion with changes in the heart, peripheral resistance and blood flow, as well as skin, core and muscle temperature alterations Wilcock et al, These changes in blood flow and temperature responses may have an effect on inflammation, immune function, muscle soreness and perception of fatigue.
Various forms of water immersion are becoming increasingly popular with elite athletes. While athletes have been using hydrotherapy for a number of years, we are now beginning to see increased research into water immersion, recovery and performance.
The most common forms of water immersion are cold water immersion CWIhot water immersion HWI and contrast water therapy CWTwhere the athlete alternates between hot and cold water immersion. The effects of three hydrotherapy interventions on next day performance recovery following strenuous training was investigated on 12 male cyclists who completed four experimental trials differing only in recovery intervention: After completing each exercise session, participants performed one of the four recovery interventions in a randomised crossover design.
Two minute cycling bouts performed in the heat were separated by 60 minutes, with one of the five recovery strategies performed immediately after the first exercise bout. Each trial was separated by 7 days.
All water immersion protocols improved subsequent cycling performance when compared to active recovery, demonstrating the benefits of cold water immersion in the heat. In a study investigating a dose-response effect of CWT Versey et al, improved cycling time trial and sprint performance was observed following 6 min of CWT hot water: Twelve minutes of CWI also improved sprint total work and peak power.
There was no improvement in repeat performance with 18 minutes of CWT, indicating that a dose-response relationship does not exist under these conditions. The same research group repeated the above study with trained runners using identical water immersion times and temperatures and the same time between exercise bouts 2 hours Versey et al, Recovery techniques for athletes – Written by Shona L Halson, Australia @ ShonaHalson.
High performance sport and the importance of successful performances have led athletes and coaches to continually seek any advantage or edge that may improve performance. THE IMPORTANCE OF CHILDREN’S LITERATURE – THE GOOD BOOKS [This Preface and the following Introduction will be part of a book of the same or similar title, including Study Guides for each of the Good Books included on our list.].
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The Master of Science in Physician Assistant Studies program at Christian Brothers University in Memphis, Tennessee trains physician assistants (PAs) to better serve patients in the community, region, state, and nation.