My zambezi valley essay

He joined 2 Commando, before being commissioned as a subaltern into 3 Commando as OC 12 Troop in

My zambezi valley essay

The sixteen-year-long war in Mozambique Insight on Africa, 5, 1 Emerson, The Battle for Mozambique: Whilst clearly a national struggle, it also brought in regional players like Rhodesia and South Africa and even Tanzania and Zambia-all of whom had a vested interest in the outcome of this struggle for supremacy.

Ordinary Mozambicans paid dearly for the war-an estimated 1 million dead; millions more made refugees or internally displaced, hundreds of thousands maimed and the economy in ruins. Previous studies of the Mozambican war are problematic at best-having embraced the narrative emanating from one or the other side.

What emerges from the pages of this erudite book is the definitive account of the Mozambican civil war. Whilst Emerson regards his book as a military history of the conflict waged in Mozambique-it is far more than that.

The My zambezi valley essay is exposed to the strategic calculations of key actors as they have to respond to changing circumstances. FRELIMO, meanwhile, had to respond to changes such as the imminent collapse of the Soviet Union-its key supporter and supplier-and under President Joaquim Chissano, had to mend its broken relationship with the West as well as abandon its Marxist orientation.

RENAMO, on the other hand, was forced to confront strategic challenges of its own-the death of its leader Andre Matsangaissa inthe loss of Salisbury as independent Zimbabwe and the declining support from Pretoria as the winds of change also found its way into South Africa.

The book also contains much new information. Rather, there was a remarkable bottom-up approach. Indeed, it could be argued that the General Peace Agreement merely built on the localised ceasefires which became more generalised as war-weary local FRELIMO and RENAMO commanders engaged in local peace initiatives supported by an increasingly disillusioned and traumatised local population.

Both men had very similar backgrounds-guerrilla fighters, Shona-speakers and Catholic educated.

Updated for Many of you have heard of Doctors without Borders, an organization in which doctors volunteer their time to help patients in medically under-served areas around the world. Acharia/acharii: for Erik Acharius (), Swedish botanist who pioneered the taxonomy of lichens and is known as the "father of lichenology".He was one of the last students of Linnaeus and continued the work that Linnaeus began, publishing many works on lichens. He was also director of the Vadstena Hospital (which he had founded). History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. The earliest inhabitants were small groups of hunters and gatherers such as the Khoi and the San.

This is a detailed military history of the war, based on interviews with participants and access to some archives. Author Stephen Emerson has a background in US military intelligence and the book is particularly good on Renamo and on Zimbabwean military involvement, but less good on Mozambique where he did not have access to archives or to senior military people.

As a journalist who covered the war, I find it interesting that although the book corrects many details, it also shows that much of what we knew or suspected at the time proves to be true. Emerson stresses that this was a cold war proxy war, and that Renamo was only created and survived because of the support of Rhodesia and apartheid South Africa.

He provides new information on the Rhodesian creation of Renamo. He details the extensive command, logistic, supply and training support by South Africa, which at one point was airlifting tonnes of material a year to Renamo, as well as substantial quantities carried by boats.

There were South African training teams in Mozambique, and Renamo was supplied with a radio system more sophisticated than that used by the Zimbabwean and Mozambican government. By the lates Afonso Dhlakama did command a large and surprisingly mobile military force, but it collapsed when South African support was withdrawn.

Although the book stops atit gives important pointers on current issues.

My zambezi valley essay

Emerson notes that "Renamo insurgents have been blamed for much of the brutality unleashed against civilians during the war. Nearly all of its soldiers were initially kidnapped rather than joining voluntarily.

Dhlakama was a good operational military commander, but with strategy largely coming from South Africa. He was not a politician and the Renamo was not about organising local support, so it was unable to evolve and never became a proper political party.

International Affairs - March Stephen Emerson was a defence analyst of southern Africa for the US government during the war years, and The battle for Mozambique reflects such an eye. In broad-brush terms, there are no new dramatic insights into the Mozambican civil war, but Emerson succinctly adds nuance, detail and factual accuracy.

This book is mostly about the rebel group Renamo, as an agent of Rhodesian and South African destabilization of Mozambique but morphing into a guerrilla campaign that forced political concessions from the Mozambican government and resulted in the Rome General Peace Accord GPA of October Without it, Renamo would have quickly disappeared p.

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This gave Renamo a command and control advantage until and helped develop its own identity. Emerson talks about a contest of ideologies as underpinning this conflict and argues that the anti-Frelimo radio station Voz da Africa Livre based in Salisbury Harare drew early recruits to Renamo in No doubt radio propaganda attracted some supporters, but a survey of ex-combatants after the war in showed that 87 per cent of Renamo soldiers had been forced recruits, which is supported by more recent studies.

There are hints of answers in this book: Although not cited in this book, the published memoirs by ex-Renamo representative Paulo Oliveira also observed that in the early s, Dhlakama was politically green, with a weakness for martial arts films, Coca-Cola and motorcycles.

They certainly assisted his rise and protected him. Finally, was Renamo successful because the Mozambican military was so inept?Updated for Many of you have heard of Doctors without Borders, an organization in which doctors volunteer their time to help patients in medically under-served areas around the world.

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Essay Zambezi Valley If the average person was asked about the Zambezi Valley, how many would actually have anything to say? From all the places I have been in the world, the Zambezi Valley stands out most in my mind. The mighty Zambezi River forms the border between Zimbabwe and Zambia as they lie on the maps in our libraries.

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