That Is The Question
Departure[ edit ] The Call to Adventure[ edit ] The hero begins in a situation of normality from which some information is received that acts as a call to head off into the unknown.
The hero can go forth of his own volition to accomplish the adventure, as did Theseus when he arrived in his father's city, Athens, and heard the horrible history of the Minotaur ; or he may be carried or sent abroad by some benign or malignant agent as was Odysseusdriven about the Mediterranean by the winds of the angered god, Poseidon.
The adventure may begin as a mere blunder Examples might be multiplied, ad infinitumfrom every corner of the world. This may be from a sense of duty or obligation, fear, insecurity, a sense of inadequacy, or any of a range of reasons that work to hold the person in his current circumstances.
Walled in boredom, hard work, or 'culture,' the subject loses the power of significant affirmative action and becomes a victim to be saved.
His flowering world becomes a wasteland of dry stones and his life feels meaningless—even though, like King Minoshe may through titanic effort succeed in building an empire or renown. Whatever house he builds, it will be a house of death: All he can do is create new problems for himself and await the gradual approach of his disintegration.
More often than not, this supernatural mentor will present the hero with one or more talismans or artifacts that will aid him later in his quest.
Meeting the person that can help them in their journey. What such a figure represents is the benign, protecting power of destiny. The fantasy is a reassurance—promise that the peace of Paradise, which was known first within the mother womb, is not to be lost; that it supports the present and Myth and campbells stages of heroic in the future as well as in the past is omega as well as alpha ; that though omnipotence may seem to be endangered by the threshold passages and life awakenings, protective power is always and ever present within or just behind the unfamiliar features of the world.
One has only to know and trust, and the ageless guardians will appear. Having responded to his own call, and continuing to follow courageously as the consequences unfold, the hero finds all the forces of the unconscious at his side. Mother Nature herself supports the mighty task.
And in so far as the hero's act coincides with that for which his society is ready, he seems to ride on the great rhythm of the historical process. Such custodians bound the world in four directions—also up and down—standing for the limits of the hero's present sphere, or life horizon. Beyond them is darkness, the unknown and danger; just as beyond the parental watch is danger to the infant and beyond the protection of his society danger to the members of the tribe.
The usual person is more than content, he is even proud, to remain within the indicated bounds, and popular belief gives him every reason to fear so much as the first step into the unexplored. The adventure is always and everywhere a passage beyond the veil of the known into the unknown; the powers that watch at the boundary are dangerous; to deal with them is risky; yet for anyone with competence and courage the danger fades.
By entering this stage, the person shows willingness to undergo a metamorphosis. When first entering the stage the hero may encounter a minor danger or set back.
The hero, instead of conquering or conciliating the power of the threshold, is swallowed into the unknown and would appear to have died. This popular motif gives emphasis to the lesson that the passage of the threshold is a form of self-annihilation.
Instead of passing outward, beyond the confines of the visible world, the hero goes inward, to be born again. The disappearance corresponds to the passing of a worshipper into a temple—where he is to be quickened by the recollection of who and what he is, namely dust and ashes unless immortal.
The temple interior, the belly of the whale, and the heavenly land beyond, above, and below the confines of the world, are one and the same. That is why the approaches and entrances to temples are flanked and defended by colossal gargoyles: The devotee at the moment of entry into a temple undergoes a metamorphosis.
Once inside he may be said to have died to time and returned to the World Womb, the World Navel, the Earthly Paradise. Allegorically, then, the passage into a temple and the hero-dive through the jaws of the whale are identical adventures, both denoting in picture language, the life-centering, life-renewing act.
Often the hero fails one or more of these tests, which often occur in threes. Eventually the hero will overcome these trials and move on to the next step. This is a favorite phase of the myth-adventure. It has produced a world literature of miraculous tests and ordeals. The hero is covertly aided by the advice, amulets, and secret agents of the supernatural helper whom he met before his entrance into this region.
Or it may be that he here discovers for the first time that there is a benign power everywhere supporting him in his superhuman passage. The original departure into the land of trials represented only the beginning of the long and really perilous path of initiatory conquests and moments of illumination.
Dragons have now to be slain and surprising barriers passed—again, again, and again. Meanwhile there will be a multitude of preliminary victories, unsustainable ecstasies and momentary glimpses of the wonderful land.
This is the crisis at the nadir, the zenith, or at the uttermost edge of the earth, at the central point of the cosmos, in the tabernacle of the temple, or within the darkness of the deepest chamber of the heart.
The meeting with the goddess who is incarnate in every woman is the final test of the talent of the hero to win the boon of love charity: And when the adventurer, in this context, is not a youth but a maid, she is the one who, by her qualities, her beauty, or her yearning, is fit to become the consort of an immortal.
Then the heavenly husband descends to her and conducts her to his bed—whether she will or not.The stages of the hero’s journey described through excerpts from Campbell’s Hero with a Thousand Faces Joseph Campbell’s “Monomyth” Scheme Campbell divides the hero’s journey into three main moves: departure, initiation, and return.
It organizes the stages in a coherent, hermeneutic sequence so that understanding whole (the process) gives us a broad perspective for understanding the parts (the stages), and understanding the parts gives us a deeper insight into the whole.
What Makes a Hero: Joseph Campbell’s Seminal Monomyth Model for the Eleven Stages of the Hero’s Journey, Animated “It has always been the prime function of mythology and rite to supply the symbols that carry the human spirit forward.”. Students identify the stages of the heroic journey in a piece of literature by creating one cell depicting each of the twelve steps.
Students create storyboards that show and explain each stage found in the work of literature, using specific quotes from the text which highlight each part of the journey. Campbell's Stages of the Heroic Monomyth: Joseph Campbell’s Monomyth (Hero With A Thousand Faces)The standard path of the mythological adventure of the hero is a magnification of the formula.
This book should be included in high school reading. Regardless of whether you agree with the ideas it is a wonderful example of research, passion, and hard work.