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The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Neuroimage See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. To investigate possible patterns of functional reorganization, we compared the behavioral and neural activation patterns of this individual with those of a group of control participants for the tasks of silent reading of words and pseudowords and the passive viewing of faces and objects, all tasks that typically recruit the inferior temporal lobes.
This comparison was carried rossion situation based writing a resume with methods that included a novel application of Mahalanobis distance statistics, and revealed: Introduction Research directed at understanding the neural reorganization that takes place subsequent to acquired language impairments is still in its very early stages.
Functional neuroimaging methods have recently provided important opportunities to reveal the neural mechanisms that support the recovery of language functions. The aim of this paper is to use fMRI to examine patterns of neural response in the case of an individual with damage to the left fusiform gyrus that produced impairments in written language processing.
We examine the relationship between behavioral and neural responses for tasks involving functions that normally make use of the left fusiform or nearby areas — word and pseudoword reading as well as object and face processing.
Research to date has examined neural reorganization both in spontaneous recovery of language functions Cao et al. This work has provided evidence that various mechanisms may be involved in language recovery, including: The most widely proposed mechanism is recruitment of right hemisphere substrates, typically substrates homologous to the left hemisphere lesion Basso et al.
However, this proposal has been challenged by findings indicating that the right hemisphere recruitment may be only the early response of the brain but may not be support the ultimate recovery of function Fernandez et al.
Some of this work indicates that recovery of function after at least 6 months post-injury was associated only with the recruitment of left hemisphere areas either adjacent or non-adjacent to the lesioned areas. Several papers have described some of the many methodological and interpretative challenges faced by these investigations e.
One approach is to carry out an intervention treatment study with neuroimaging taking place pre and post intervention; another approach is to compare neural activations from an individual suffering from an acquired language impairment with the activations of neurologically intact individuals.
While both types of studies have been more common in the area of spoken language than written language, the literature on written language deficits is steadily growing.
However, these studies have exclusively been concerned with reading, rather than spelling deficits. In terms of intervention studies, several have examined neural reorganization in individuals with acquired phonological alexia difficulty reading nonwords, often accompanied by difficulty in function word reading.
Behaviorally, they found that the training improved reading accuracy for nonwords and function words and that this improvement reflected the improved operation of sublexical processes. Neurally, they found that the primary changes involved a shift in activation from the left angular gyrus to the left lingual gyrus.
Adair, et al used SPECT to study cerebral blood flow CBF in an individual with a lesion affecting left hemisphere posterior superior and middle temporal gyri as well as adjacent temporal-parietal and temporal-occipital cortex.
They examined changes in the CBF during nonword reading before and after treatment targeted at phonological analysis and letter-sound mappings.
They found post-treatment recruitment of right hemisphere perisylvian areas as well as left hemisphere frontal areas. In a more recent study, Kurland and colleagues considered an individual with a left temporal-parietal lesion and they examined the effects of a semantic treatment designed to improve the reading of function words and abstract words.
Interestingly, all three studies reported ipsilesional neural changes that were not restricted to the perilesional region and that were assumed to be related to the specific treatment approaches that were applied. In terms of neural changes that apparently support the letter-by-letter reading behavior, the neuroimaging data from these cases converges on identifying increased involvement of the right hemisphere homologue of the VWFA, right hemisphere occipital areas and left hemisphere fronto-parietal regions.
This recruitment pattern forms the basis of the proposal that, in these cases, letters may be recognized in the right hemisphere occipital and VWFA areas, tranfered serially to the left hemisphere and then processed through the left hemisphere fronto-parietal verbal working memory network.
This results in eventual word recognition, with possible top-down recruitment of the left VWFA Cohen et al.I argue that this environment of weaker kinship caused northwest Europeans to create communities based on shared moral rules, rather than shared kinship.
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